Clinical Chemistry Reagents

Assay Clinical Significance
Hepatic Function
ALT To reflect the hepatic parenchyma damage (hepatitis, cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, etc.).
ALP Liver diseases (biliary obstruction, hepatocyte damage, etc.), bone injury.
γ-GT Liver cancer, obstructive jaundice, alcoholic liver, disease of pancreas, etc.
CHE Acute hepatitis, organophosphorus poisoning, fatty liver.
ADA Help to test the residual disease of acute hepatitis and the progress of hepatopathy, and reflect the acute liver injury better than ALT, GGT, etc.
AFU The highly sensitive index of primary liver cancer.
5’-NT The highly sensitive index of liver cancer to assist ALP to distinguish liver diseases and bone diseases.
LAP The auxiliary index of liver cancer. The joint test of 5’-NT, AFU & LAP will increase the test accuracy of early liver cancer.
MAO The diagnosis index of early cirrhosis. The joint test of ADA+TBA+MAO will increase the detection rate of positive cirrhosis.
Alb Malnutrition, impaired hepatic function, myeloma, chronic wasting disease, diabetes, nephrotic syndrome.
PA The severer the impaired hepatic function is, the smaller the PA value will be. The PA value could be regarded as the prognosis index of hepatopathy.
TBil The liver plays a significant role in the metabolism of bilirubin. TBil could accurately reflect the degree of icterus. The joint test of TBil + DBil will help to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of icterus type. Hemolytic icterus, TBil↑; hepatocellular jaundice, TBil↑DBil↑; obstructive jaundice, DBil↑.
TBA The TBA will observably increase in acute hepatitis. When the CAH recurs, the serum TBA will increase earlier than the abnormality of routine liver enzymology.
AMM The important diagnosis and monitoring index of hepatic encephalopathy.
Renal Function
Crea The concentration of serum creatinine could reflect the filtration capacity of the glomerulus.
UA The serum UA will observably increase in acute or chronic glomerulonephritis, which is earlier than UREA and Crea.
UREA It will increase in the middle and late period of renal injury. The test of UREA has a special value for the diagnosis of the renal failure, especially the uremia. And it could help to test the patients' condition and estimate the prognosis.
Cys C The Cys C in the serum could reflect the glomerulus injury, while the Cys C in urine will reflect the renal tubule reabsorption decomposition function injury.
Cys C
mAlb The mALB of urine is the marker of glomerular injury. The ratio test of protein and creatinine of urine could reliably reflect the urine protein quantity in the past 24 hours.
β2-MG The β2-MG of serum will reflect the glomerulus injury, while the β2-MG of urine will reflect the renal tubule injury.
CSF/UTP The increasing of total urine protein is common in the high glomerular permeability. The increasing of CSF protein is usually found when the BBB permeability or intrathecal immunoglobulin secretion increase.
NGAL The early marker of renal injury and renal tubule injury.
α1-MG α1-MGof serum will reflect the glomerulus injury, while the α1-MG of urine will reflect the renal tubule injury. And it will be stable in the acidic condition.
RBP The urine RBP could evaluate the renal tubule injury and CKD renal interstitial fibrosis.
NAG The NAG increasing will be found with the renal tubule injury and could help to distinguish the upper and lower UTI.
HDL-C The reducing of HDL-C is the precursor of clinical CHD, and could also promote development of AS.
LDL-C The risk factor of arteriosclerosis. The increasing of LDL-C is usually found in the patients of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes and nephropathy.
TC One of the main risk factor of CHD.
TG Easy to cause the AS and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
ApoAⅠ Have resistance and cure ability to AS. The reducing of ApoA I indicates the risk increasing of CHD and cerebrovascular disease.
ApoB The high value of ApoB is the risk factor of CHD, also a better marker of AS among those serum lipid parameters.
LP(a) The high-level Lp(a) is an independent risk factor of AS, arteriostenosis, and stroke.
Hcy The strong risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Glu-HK To reflect the blood glucose at a specific time, but is easily affected by factors, such as food and glycometabolism.
HbA1c Stably and reliably reflect the average blood glucose within 120 days before the test.
GA To reflect the average blood glucose of diabetics within 2-3 weeks before the test. It's a good index to evaluate the glycometabolism control of diabetics in the short term.
FMN To reflect the average blood glucose within 2-3 weeks, and make up the shortage that the HbA1C could not reflect the change of blood glucose in the short term.
LAC The LAC will increase due to the severe histanoxia caused by shock, heart failure, blood diseases, and pulmonary insufficiency.
CK The most widely used marker of myocardial damage. Its concentration is related to the area of myocardial infarction and could test the myocardial reinfarction.
CK-MB The activity rise of CK-MB is recognized as the important index of acute myocardial infarction diagnosis and test of myocardial necrosis, whose sensitivity and specificity are greater than CK.
LDH Its increasing is usually found in the myocardial infarction, hepatopathy, and some malignant tumors.
α-HBDH Myocardial infarction, pernicious anemia, hemolytic anemia, renal infarction, myocardial damage, cardiomyopathy, etc.
H-FABP It has greater sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of early AMI.
LDH1 The marker of AMI. It has a long half-life and significance to the diagnosis and monitoring for the late admission to patients.
Special Protein
IgG The increasing of Ig is often found in immunological diseases, such as the acute stage of SLE, CAH, active stage of RA, etc. According to generated Ig types, it could be divided into Type G (IgG increases), Type A (IgA increases), Type D & E (Those two are rare), etc. The IgG usually increases in the infection, such as chronic suppurative infection, tuberculosis, hepatapostema, bilharziasis, and lepra lepromatosa, etc. The IgA of most patients will increase in the malignant tumor, such as the digestive tract cancer, respiratory cancer, genitourinary cancer. The IgM often increases in the laryngocarcinoma, colon cancer, rectal cancer, and PCa.
C4 The C3 and C4 are the APRP, which will increase in the acute inflammation, systemic infection, acute stage of rheumatic fever, malignant tumor, and pregnancy, etc. The reducing of C3 and C4 are often found in diseases in which the complement synthesis ability reduce, such as hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, and diseases in which the complement consume or lose too much, such as active SLE. The C3 will be normal, while the C4 will reduce, in the autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Hereditary neuroangioma.
RF The test of RF has significances to the diagnosis, classification and clinical observation of RA.
ASO The diagnosis index of the rheumatic fever. It has a great reference value to the RA diagnosis caused by itself.
CRP The CRP will increase at the inflammation caused by the bacterial infection. The increasing degree is consistent with the severity of the bacterial infection. But the CRP is normal at the viral infection.
Hs-CRP It will increase in the CHD, stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular embolization, etc.
anti-CCP One of the RA classification diagnosis indexes.
Ca The increasing of Ca is usually found in the hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma, and sarcoidosis.
Mg The increasing of Mg in the serum is usually found in renal diseases and endocrine diseases, such as acute or chronic renal failure, while the reducing caused by the Mg loss in the digestive tract or urinary tract, etc.
IP To reflect the parathyroid function and renal function.
CO2 Increasing: metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis; Reducing: metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis.
D-Dimer Mainly to reflect the fibrinolytic function and be applied in the diagnosis of VTE, DVT, and PE.
FDP The FDP mainly reflects the fibrinolytic function. The D-Dimer won't increase, but the FDP will, in the primary fibrinolysis.
AMY Mainly to be applied in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.
SA The auxiliary index of malignant tumor diagnosis.
PGⅠ/Ⅱ The identification index of the gastric cancer screening and census.